Hypermodern International Congress 2175

Remember, it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark.

20060520

The Origins of Civilization I: Freud's "Totem and Taboo"


Note: To any female and/or black readers, the following excerpt, as is characterisitic of Freud, contains currents of misogyny and racism, which may provoke feelings of distaste and loathing. Nevertheless, it is hilarious.

From Part IV of Freud's "Totem and Taboo," in which he speculates on the origins of cultural institutions such as law and religion:

"There is, of course, no place for the beginnings of totemism in Darwin's primal horde. All that we find there is a violent and jealous father who keeps all the females for himself and drives away his sons as they grow up. This earliest state of society has never been an object of observation. The most primitive kind of organization that we actually come across--and one that is in force to this day in certain tribes--consists of bands of males; these bands are composed of members with equal rights and are subject to the restrictions of the totemic system, including inheritance through the mother. Can this form of organization have developed out of the other one? and if so along what lines?

If we call the celebration of the totem meal to our help, we shall be able to find an answer. One day the brothers who had been driven out came together, killed and devoured their father and so made an end of the patriarchal horde. United, they had the courage to do and succeeded in doing what would have been impossible for them individually. (Some cultural advance, perhaps, command over some new weapon, had given them a sense of superior strength.) Cannibal savages as they were, it goes without saying that they devoured their victim as well as killing him. The violent primal father had doubtless been the feared and envied model of each one of the company of brothers: and in the act of devouring him they accomplished their identification with him, and each one of them acquired a portion of his strength. The totem meal, which is perhaps mankind's earliest festival, would thus be a repetition and a commemoration of this memorable and criminal deed, which was the beginning of so many things--of social organization, of moral restrictions and of religion." (141-2)

He goes on to clarify by saying that, prior to the killing, the murderous band of brothers felt strong ambivalent feelings toward their father--hatred of him as an obstacle to sexual fulfillment along with admiration and affection for him as an exemplar of male power. Thus, after satisfying their hatred by offing the father, the brothers experienced a resurgence of their love for him in the form of guilt. This guilt was so powerful that it compelled the brothers to honor their dead father by establishing laws that prohibited what the father prohibited--sleeping with their mother and sisters. They also established a primitive religion, with the dead father, in the form of a "totem animal", as the god, and in order to "revoke" their deed they forbade the killing of the totem animal.

That's the short version, at least.

Next: Ishmael Reed and playa-hating as the origin of the West

20060519

Death of HSayz, Birth of the Blog: 1 Year Later ... alternative histories

THE MOVIE

... based on a true story

***Coming to a theatre near you in 2008***

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Introducing Dustin Himmelfarb as Michael Zimmerman
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On March 16th, 2005 Heraclitus Sayz dot com suddenly went off the net for good. There would be no more challenging interviews, no more primordial thought pieces, blog, newz, HAARP cam, and no more of Heinrich Odom’s superior ear for hidden lo-fi gems. Just like that the site vanished into thin air and each contributor went his/her separate way as if they had never convened in the first place. No one at the site thought or cared enough to let you, the reader, know why. But if you were paying any attention at all, you had to see it coming. It’s no secret that Heraclitus Sayz died a slow, painful death in front of all to see. Following the shotgun-suicide of HSayz editor, Michael Zimmerman, heretofore canonized as the very first martyr of Hypermodernity, the site fell into ruin like the very ancient Greek temples where Heraclitus once roamed. If you remember, you’d see like one new review or interview every week or two, certainly not one new lo-fi review a day we all grew accustomed to, until finally the site was no longer accessible. The blog, oh that wretched motherfucking mp3 blog that started it all, was never updated - left for dead, its rotting flesh picked apart mp3 by mp3 by the opportunistic vultures from the blogosphere. But the remaining contributors didn’t care because they already had enough on their plate, namely: who succeeds Michael Zimmerman not only as the editor of HSayz but of the Hypermodernity Club--the real reason the site was started in the first place?
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2-time Tony Award winner Rick Rothschild as Saliba Said
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Here’s the first insight into why they left you, the fan of the primordial: following Zimmerman’s burial six feet closer to hell, a schism developed between the contributors over what direction the Hypermodernity Club should take. You see, Zimmerman was a great mediator because his nails-on-the-chalkboard combative personality lent itself to treating everyone the same – no one escaped a hearty ‘fuck you!’ or a ‘you fucking die’, or a 'you cite Frege one more time throats will be slashed right now!'. And that’s why the club worked because everyone’s separate agenda was kept in tow behind Zimmerman’s ego. Without MZ keeping everyone in line, an intense, sometimes petty, power struggle arose.
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The O.C.'s Adam Brody as Rory Spiegelman
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It’s more or less fair to say that following the martyrdom of MZ the contributors fell into three feuding camps: the What Comes First Comes Greatest party, once led by Zimmerman but now comprised of liberal-arts college senior Nick Cohen, Israeli-born A&E archivist Saliba Said, photographer Tristan Loper, and truck-driver Dirk Boots; the Simulationists led by DJ Beau Yonder, hacktress Judy Killfile, and the couch-surfing G. Taylor; and the Pataphysicians, a group comprised of no one in particular but the mere idea itself necessitated a party all its own. Perhaps all of this sounds silly to you as you read this, but that’s because you understand little to nothing of the 12-member Hypermodernity Club (save those who participated in the online seminar: Heidegger, Heraclitus, & the Eternal Sway of the Polemos), and unless you are one of the Few, that’s the way they want to keep it.
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South Africa's Saar Sane as Beau Yonder
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History is replete with examples of great empires disintegrating into chaos following the death of their great leader, and unfortunately Heraclitus Sayz is no different. But for the sake of clarification it would be misleading the consider Zimmerman the great leader in the history of the Hypermodernity Club, for that distinction belongs to Rory Spiegelman, the founder of the Club and the HSayz blog. Those with great memories and/or the drug free will cite Spiegelman’s abrupt departure in August of 2004 as the first sign of the beginning of the end, not Z’s suicide. It’s been over a year since anyone associated with the Club has heard from him and its unknown whether he even has any idea of his protégé’s mortal fate.
____

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But back to where we left off, the point at which the contributors were left to pick up the pieces. Behind the backing of the reserved but supremely influential Heinrich Odom, Nick Cohen became the third Führer of the Hypermodernity Club, a good year before his college graduation at Pomona College in Claremont, California. This decision will be remembered by future hypermodernists as Odom’s biggest blunder during his tenure as Heraclitus’ right-hand man. Dr. Heinrich Odom, a proud, quiet man, professor-like in appearance, speech, and mannerisms, will almost certainly come to the same conclusion in due time. His published letter to the Hypermodernity Club in support of Cohen is reprinted below for the first time:


Dear Club Comrades Trotha!Again and again from different sides my attention has been directed to the lo-fi activity of Nick Cohen in California. It is understood already in the broadest circles that he is considered to be the lo-fi philosopher of Hypermodernity. I myself have no definite opinion of Cohen, but I have recently inquired of Dirk Boots in Wilmington (you know him of course from his visit with Zimmerman in Chicago), and it is a fact that Cohen is a serious candidate for election as Editor of Heraclitus Sayz.
Best greetings and Heil Heraclitus, Your Heinrich

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Academy Award Winner Philip Seymour Hoffman as Dr. Heinrich Odom
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The Hypermodern “Third Reich” got off to a shaky start from the outset as the much-too-green Cohen penned a haphazard Hypermodern Newzletter with the following “eulogy”: “Michael Zimmerman is gone for good. But let this not distract us from things much greater we've set out to accomplish from the beginning. I say: get over it. ” Although Cohen in all probability meant well, he had the effect of alienating the sklav moral readership, which in hindsight probably comprised most of the HSayz fans at that time. The heathen hipsters were outraged at Cohen’s apparent flippant dismissal of Z’s suicide (in spite of their inability to spell): “You have some explaining to do. And I mean REAL explaning (sic), not just some psuedointellectual BS (sic) and a recommendation that we read some classic philosophical work for more insight”, “Intelectual masturbation.(sic)”, “Call me an old bitty, call me a prude, call me a humorless nerd, but I will not support this site.”
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Jack White in his first starring role as Nick Cohen

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As you probably can sense from your visits to the site, alienating the HSayz fanbase is hardly a cardinal sin in the minds of most of the contributors – it happens every day. The club would rather have one fan instead of ten-thousand, that is if he be the best. Cohen, however, went three steps further by quickly alienating the very staff that had put him in power. Two points of contention were his age and unwillingness (inability?) to grasp primordial thinking as an endeavor infinitely more solemn than a mere leisure activity. Case in point is this thinly-veiled militant excerpt taken from a letter sent to the entire club, his de facto call-to-arms:

“I call us "the Club of Hölderlin" because it is of the very essence of the Hypermodern character that its burning innermost core should become manifest at an infinite distance below the crust of slag which is its surface, manifest only in a secret Hypermodernity Club... Body, mind and spirit are once again grasped as lo-fi modes and forms of expression of the unifying and eternal ground of life and reduced to a common alignment and direction by the overarching and spreading law of blood. The man who is most deeply rooted in the darkness of the earth and nature....... the man who, simultaneously, as a spiritual person, in his consciousness of self, reaches the utmost heights of the luminous world of hypermodern ideas, that man is approaching the idea of total man, and wherewith, the idea of the substance of the very source of the lo-fi world, through a constantly growing interpenetration of spirit and drive. ‘The person who thinks most deeply, loves what is most alive.’ (Hölderlin)”

... and last but not least Mandy Patinkin as Michael's father,
Tulane Professor Michael E. Zimmerman

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Under Cohen’s polarizing leadership Heraclitus Sayz laid in the pincers, with the fragmenting What Comes First clan on one side and the ever-restless Simulationists on the other, the fate of the Hypermodernity Club hanging in the balance. The stage was now set for a war of words.
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HSAYZ THE MOVIE - SUMMER '08!!

OMFG H4XXX??!!%%$# Vol. 1

Vol. 1 features the D.A.R.E. program. 0w3n3d.
THC: Committed to bringing you excellence in hacked web pages.

20060518

Hypermodern C0m1x: "Mind Kontrol"

Frank Olson, CIA Mind Slave

Frank Olsen Legacy Projekt Websight

20060517

Hypermodern Comix - "Weather Control"

and now for another exciting installment...

(I know, I know I made them too small...click on th pix you lazy fucks)









Securing Our Culture of Life

Dear Constituents,

I write to you today on a topic of deep personal interest and moral consistency. In the defense of the culture of life we acknowledge the beginning of life at conception. Any interference with the process of development after the moment of conception is tantamount to an embrace of death. The moral health of America's children depends on vigorous support of all life.

Within this framework, indeed, it is necessary that we all, as moral beings, refrain from eating the embryos of animals in the form of eggs. A total devotion to the culture of life necessitates a quasi-vegan lifestyle. I say "quasi" because the nurturing elixir of life, that is, the mother's milk, may not need be abandoned in the name of righteousness. The extraction of milk does not destroy life, but merely constitutes a molestation of the particular milk donor. Speaking frankly, I know I could never give up a nice glass of buttermilk before bed and I would never ask my constituents to do something that I wouldn't do myself.

I hope you all will join together to bring the culture of life to its logical conclusion: quasi-veganism. Together we can ensure the moral consistency and the moral survival of our precious children.


Your dutiful servant,
Senator Saxby Chambliss

20060516

PART 1: Where the danger is, there also grows the saving Power: the Bush Family Criminal Syndicate


Former DEA Agent: Mexican Commandos Killing In South West US To Protect Bush Drug Cartel

Prison Planet | June 9 2005

Retired DEA Agent Celerino "Cele" Castillo III served for 12 years in the Drug Enforcement Administration where he built cases against organized drug rings in Manhattan, raided jungle cocaine labs in the amazon, conducted aerial eradication operations in Guatemala, and assembled and trained anti-narcotics units in several countries.

Cele appeared on the Alex Jones show and dropped the bombshell that los Zetas, Mexican drug commandos trained in the U.S. at the School of the Americas at Fort Benning, Georgia to be the elite "special forces" of the Mexican military are now murdering police and conducting hits all over the South West US.

This partially came out in the national media last week but the spin was that it was just a case of blowback and that these US trained commandos had come back to haunt their former handlers. The truth is that they are still working for the US government in protecting drug routes to keep the wheels of Wall Street oiled.

These commandos are working directly for the Bush drug cartel in carrying out hits on rival drug smugglers who aren't paying their cut. Witnesses and innocent police, DEA and FBI agents are also being murdered.

Selection from Castillo's interview with Alex Jones, available in full at prisoplanet.com:

Cele Castillo: "That same blueprint they used in Guatamala and in Vietnam they have now brought it to Iraq and the same Colonel who ran the death squads down in El Salvador Colonel James Steele is now running those commando unit death squads in Iraq. So basically we have the same individuals, same cell grups that were in Vietnam that came to central America and Miami and so forth and are now in Iraq and some of them are being trained here in south Texas. There's warehouses down here we're they're training more Zetas individuals that work for the cartels.

Alex Jones: "Now for those that missed that, you have evidence as a former veteran, peace officer and then head DEA agent in Latin America and you live in south Texas, that down there they are training these los Zetas groups and again they're now targeting rival cowboys that are not paying their cut, do you agree with that statement?"

Cele Castillo: "Absolutely but not only that just recently last month we had a female US customs agent driving down the highway and a couple of individuals drove up to her and just shot the hell out of the car and she got hit on the ankle and they're not gonna take any more prisoners. They're now gonna target FBI agents, DEA agents and people that were able to get away from...."

Alex Jones: "And Bush has ordered the border patrol to stand down there in the Tuscon sector because, this was official, because it was cutting in on their drug profits."

Cele Castillo: "Well exactly and now they're planning to come to south Texas and they're gonna do the same thing here in south Texas and there was a story just today in the paper which says border patrol agents say you know what we can't stop these people from coming across the border and the reason that we can't stop them is because our government is not letting us do it."

Alex Jones: "Well I read in the Brownsville paper, the Dallas Moring News you name it that they're conducting murders all over Texas and killing police officers but it's a national secret Cele, it's in regional papers....

Cele Castillo: "Well one of the most major things that people don't realize that's going on is a lot of these people getting murdered are informants for the DEA and FBI and basically people don't wanna admit the fact or let the public know that these people are informants working for the government."

Alex Jones: "Cop killers that work for Bush."


NOELLE BUSH (at right), daughter of Jeb, one of the casualties of Bush criminal drug syndicate

20060515

"J" Three W. Zee.

Israeli man: I'm being stalked by crow



Ramat Hasharon resident subjected to ongoing attacks by violent raven after the bird's chick fell into his garden. 'I'm forced to leave house with helmet and parasol,' man says, adds his life now looks like a Hitchcock movie
Raanan Ben Zur

Like being in a horror movie: Shimshon Badash, 58, from the town of Ramat Hasharon in the heart of Israel is in despair: For over a week now he has been suffering repeated attacks by a crow that lives near his house and is forced to leave his home wearing a helmet and equipped with a parasol in order to protect himself.

"I need help. I don't have a life anymore. I live like in Hitchcock's movie 'The Birds'," the distressed Badash said Friday.

Badash's nightmare began after a crow's chick fell out of its nest into his backyard last week. The young bird's loud cries forced Badash to pick it up and carry it outside his garden, a move that proved to be a big mistake.

Ever since that day a crow – probably the chick's mother - began attacking Badash on a daily basis. "When I came back home on Independence Day, the crow began attacking me… several days later I went outside the house and was assaulted again. I felt I was in danger. I tried to run and then fell and injured myself. Whenever I wanted to leave the house, the crow would strike me. I was forced to be on the run constantly," Badash related.

"This is a large and scary bird. Even when I'm running it flies faster and catches up with me. Fortunately it does not move against my wife and children and only attacks me," he added.

'Crow a protected bird'



In the meantime, Badash's life has become unbearable. He said that he is unable to sit in his garden as the crow lurks there waiting to attack. "Whenever I go out of the house I put on a helmet and hold a parasol over my head, and only in this way I'm protected," he explained.

Badash approached the Ramat Hasharon municipality several times in order to get their help, but he claimed no one there took him seriously. However, the town's Mayor Itzik Ruchberger eventually consented to visit Badash's house and look into the situation himself.

The mayor, who confirmed he had witnessed the crow attacking Badash, said that according to the city's veterinarians "this is a common phenomenon that lasts for a week or two and then disappears. As the crow is a protected animal the veterinarians cannot hurt it, and so the only solution is to wait for the problem to resolve itself."

1 Year Later: Confronting the hypermodern destining present in the suicide of Michael Zimmerman



Michael Zimmerman (1979-2005)

No one, with the possible exception of AWOL Heraclitus Sayz founder Rory Spiegelman, knew as much about the essence of lo-fi and its role in the collective destiny of popular music as did Michael Zimmerman. He used to boast that he had heard every band on earth and though no one could prove his audacious claim correct, our guess is that it was not that far off from the truth. With him in mind, we begin his eulogy by asking you all: where would we be without our handmade/shrink wrap-less/internet-only records from such cutting-edge lo-fi labels as Frigital, Asausus, Monotone, and Bedroom Brain? Quite simply, we'd be like everyone else--nameless oxen eating their way towards death, consuming their records and spitting them out in the same way as oxen graze out to pasture, unaware that they are asleep though awake.

But this is what’s become of today’s music landscape, a landscape that now threatens us with its “liberating” endless digitalization, which to the keen eye only serves to withdraw ourselves further from music’s original authentic aura, its cult value, its unparalleled magic. Yet like a shepherd that leads his flock to better pastures, we at least owe Michael a little thanks for helping to expose us to these lo-fi records we've grown not only to love and treasure, but records that stand upright among our collections like giant ancient pillars--testaments to an era long since past, yet no less relevant in these hypermodern times.

But let’s take a step back for a moment and consider: Michael was never so shallow to contemplate even for a second music part of his authentic identity, no matter how symbolic it was and still is. Zimmerman thought primordially, rising above and beyond his historical diktat, and by that we mean he had greater things on his mind which ultimately led to his death other than the jaded critic’s Top 10 lists and preoccupation with the next Arcade Fire. In the end Zimmerman buckled under the weight of hypermodernity, this much is certain. Man’s impious techno-scientific progress towards reducing nature to an object of perfect calculation, dissolution of the subject/object dialectic, death of the poet, flight of the gods, all of this and more left Zimmerman homeless like the blind Oedipus, his spiritual home annihilated, no longer a place of dwelling as it once was.

Ah, when homeless how easy it is to read with sheer pleasure the words of Hölderlin “where the danger is / grows the saving power also”, but yet so difficult to live by! The eternal strain of opposites, the ancient Greek polemos, with us mortals stretched ever-thin in the middle, becomes vexing and can very easily make us weak. Thus it would be foolish for us to say with such condescension that at the age of 25 Zimmerman's death was untimely. On the contrary, his suicide is, has been, and will always be One with all things that are, have been, and ever will be. Let us not delude ourselves in thinking that answers to these questions of death are within reach of the senses when, by letting truth speak for itself, as was written some two and a half thousand years ago by Heraclitus, the hidden attunement is far better than the open. Could it not be that the longest life is, in the end, the curse of the modern man? This must we at least consider if we are to think primordially, as Michael did.

So Michael Zimmerman tied a rubber band around his arm, injected a hit of heroin, and shot himself in the face with his gun this past weekend. What a grizzly scene that must have been in his quiet apartment on the upper eastside. And to those who were left behind, all we have are questions, questions, and more questions. Because of Michael, an irreconcilable gulf has been opened from that which has happened and that which can be understood. Because of Michael, lines have been blurred making it indiscernible who the victim is and who the perpetrator is. These are questions that we will all certainly take to our graves. But, funny thing is, none of our questions should be directed at he who decided to leave this world. Michael Zimmerman’s final legacy is that he has left us with one final question to ask ourselves: we, too, are being dominated by the infinite reach of hypermodernity. Why is it that we, when we wake up each morning, don't also decide to leave this world when, as it is all around us, we all speak the same language, the language of Nihilismus?

20060514

An Asbestos Primer

On May 11, 2006, insulation manufacturer Owens Corning announced a $5.2 billion settlement with victims of asbestos-related illnesses, thus erasing a major portion of the company’s liability and allowing it to emerge intact from Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. John D. Cooney--one of the partners at Cooney and Conway, the law firm where I push papers for a living--was quoted in the Reuters and Associated Press articles on the subject. In honor of this event, and as further proof that They will never give a damn about the monad on the ground, here is a brief history of asbestos—a mineral that, through the mad convolutions of fate, is putting food on the tables of DJ Screw and myself as we speak.

*LINK to article in Boston Globe*

The history of asbestos stretches back beyond the age of antiquity, but its present name originated with the ancient Greeks (the word means “inextinguishable” or “indestructible”—shall we say “all things are an exchange for fire, except asbestos”?) Due to its toughness and resistance to flame, the fibrous mineral was involved in many aspects of Greek and Roman daily life; Roman restaurants used tablecloths made of asbestos, which they cleaned by throwing in fires. Upon observing asbestos’s “wonder material” properties, Roman historian Pliny the Elder claimed that it “afforded protection against all spells, particularly those of the Magi.” Pliny also noted that the slaves who actually produced asbestos tablecloths, clothing, etc. suffered a “sickness of the lungs.” This observation would, of course, be fleshed out later on in history.

Fast forward to the end of the 19th century, when manufacturers in the United States began to use asbestos in a wide array of building and insulation materials. Since asbestos-related illnesses usually take at least 15 years to manifest themselves, the first officially recorded asbestos-related death did not occur until 1906, when an asbestos worker perished due to pulmonary fibrosis (a condition in which air sacs in the lungs are replaced by scar tissue that prevents the effective transfer of oxygen into the bloodstream).

Over the course of the first half of the 20th century, knowledge of the health risks associated with asbestos spread rapidly among insurance companies and asbestos manufacturers. In 1918, a Prudential official stated that life insurance companies would not cover asbestos workers due to the unnaturally high rate of death associated with exposure to the mineral. By the 1930’s and ‘40’s, insurance company doctors were regularly reporting on the severe dangers posed by inhalation of asbestos dust, and major asbestos manufacturers like Johns-Manville agreed to sponsor studies on the links between asbestos and certain types of lung disease. But the companies also insisted on complete control over the publishing of the results. It’s not difficult to guess whether Johns-Manville and their ilk ever went public with any studies linking asbestos inhalation with various forms of lung cancer.

Circumstances went south in earnest for the asbestos manufacturers in 1964, when Dr. Irving Selikoff published a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrating that, in many cases, exposure to asbestos dust causes asbestosis (a form of pulmonary fibrosis), lung cancer, and mesothelioma (a form of cancer that attacks the cells lining the lungs, and that usually leads to death within 6 to 12 months of the onset of symptoms). In the early 1970’s, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration began to regulate the use of asbestos in industry, and in that period the first verdict in favor of a plaintiff in an asbestos lawsuit was awarded to Clarence Borel in Texas—the damages in that case totaled $79,436.24. The final blow to the major asbestos manufacturers came in the late 1970’s, when former company officials offered testimony and produced internal memos and other documents that exposed the massive cover-up perpetrated earlier in the century.

Since then, asbestos litigation has itself become a stupendously profitable industry, enriching hordes of trial lawyers to the distaste of many and serving as a petri dish for several varieties of sleaze: doctors fraudulently diagnosing workers with asbestos-related illnesses, unions steering their workers to asbestos law firms in exchange for a cut of jury prizes, and asbestos attorneys coaching their clients on how to testify. As a result, a whopping 6 per cent of all court filings in the U.S. since the 1970’s have been related to asbestos (thanks for the info, Wiki-devils).

The massive buildup of asbestos litigation in U.S. courts led to proposal of the FAIR (Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution) Act in Congress, which failed to pass the Senate this past February by one vote. The law would have established a $140 billion trust fund paid for by all the asbestos manufacturers vulnerable to lawsuits, thus relieving them of their liability and effectively ending asbestos litigation. Although Senator Bill Frist has claimed there is still a possibility of reconsidering the FAIR Act before the end of the year, many see Thursday’s settlement announcement by Owens Corning as an indicator that the big asbestos companies have lost faith that the law will make it out of the Senate.

Yet amid the outcry against asbestos litigation, no one should forget that the havoc it has wreaked on our court system is merely the symptom of an underlying spiritual disease in our culture, and one that shows no signs of abating—the tendency to excessive calculation of all things, especially life, and the foisting of expense and sacrifice upon those who have few means of escaping either. The tacit contempt displayed by asbestos manufacturers toward their employees in the first half of the 20th century is certainly one of the most terrible expressions of this impiety, causing as it did upwards of 200,000 deaths in the United States, as well as exemplifying what Heidegger's girlfriend Hannah Arendt called the "banality of evil": the concealment of a community's violence beneath the phenomenological cloak of everyday actions like consumption, production and trade.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos

http://www.healthdangers.com/toxic-substances/asbestos/history-of-asbestos.htm

http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/asbestoshistory2004.html

http://www.asbestosresource.com/history/

www.kazanlaw.com/profile/asbestoslit.cfm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000118.htm


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